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CONTENTS
Location
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History and culture
Sightseeing and monuments
People and lifestyle
Sports and Leisure
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The Medieval ruins of Mystra near Sparti
Kalavrita - Mega Spilio
The fortress houses of Mani
Castle- Messini
The harbour of Kalamata
Lion Gate - Mycenae
Patra - The grand church of Saint Andrew
The island of the mythical king Pelopas (the etymology of "Peloponnese"), from Myceneae and Corinth to Sparta and Mistra, has seen more than its share of history. This is where Paris stole Helen from King Menelaos and where Agamemnon set forth with his fleet to besiege Troy. It is the land where the athletic spirit of Olympiads was created and where ancient city-states flourished, becoming the very hart of what is known to the world as the marvel of the Greek civilisation. From the 8th century B.C. onward, the Peloponnesian city-states of Argos, Corinth, Sparta and several others, were among those that broadened Greek horizons of knowledge by establishing colonies and trade stations throughout the Mediterranean. United the Greek cities defeated the invading armies of the Persian Empire on several occasions (early 5th century BC), but their growth led to rivalries and conflicts. Wars between cities culminated with the destructive Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC), which sucked in it most the ancient Greek world, including Southern Italy and Sicily, Cyprus and the Asia Minor. Sparta was the victor, but regardless of outcome the civil wars had weakened the city-states, making their submission an easier task for the rising power of the Macedonian Kingdom (338 BC). The Romans in 146 BC dissolved the Achaean Confederation, the last standing Greek alliance, and the whole region became a roman province. By the 4th century AC, raiding parties of Goths and Slavs were reaching beyond the Isthmus of Corinth pillaging and destroying what was left of ancient Greece. The Byzantines gradually adopted the name "Moreas" for the Peloponnese, which remained in use for many centuries, well into the modern era. The Franks, dissolving the Byzantine Empire in 1204, managed in short time to subdue the whole of the Peloponnese, apart from the domain of the Byzantine lords of Mystras. The heavily fortified hills of Mystras where the source of the regenerated Byzantine state which was to last for a couple more centuries. For more than 30 years the Byzantines resisted the Turkish raids along the walls of Isthmus, before being completely overrun in 1458, dismayed by the fall of Constantinople four years earlier. The modern era of Greece starts from the Peloponnese. In March 1821, the local chieftains supported by Greek intellectuals from abroad, organised an uprising against the Ottoman Empire, which ended in 1829 with the creation of a small independent Greek state. Nafplion was the first capital and the Peloponnese was once again the heart of Greece.

One cannot start talking about this land whose every corner brings to mind some myth or historical event.. Innumerable scenic sites, natural wonders and famous archeological areas constitute this region. On crossing the Corinth Isthmus one beholds the famous canal, one of the more impressive feats of 19th century engineering. Visitors may know the ancient city of Corinth, at least by name, from the Apostle Paul's epistle to the Corinthians in the New Testament. The Acrocorinth is the Acropolis of Corinth, which rises up from the ancient city. It is the largest and oldest fortress in the Peloponnese, containing a number of shrines and temples including the Temple of Aphrodite. The view from Acrocorinth is simply incredible and if for no other reason this site should not be missed. Moving on to the south is the peninsula of Argolis, the region once ruled by King Agamemnon of Mycenae. The city was utterly destroyed by the nearby Argos in 468 B.C. and what remains today of its glory are parts of the prehistoric citadel, with its gigantic or "Cyclopean walls" and the Necropolis, the burial site of the kings. In the same area is the site of Epidaurus, renown for its ancient amphitheatre, with incredible acoustics. It is the best-preserved example of classical Greek theatre, which seats up to 14,000 spectators. It is most likely that people will choose the pretty seaside town of Nafplion, with its elegant buildings and massive castles, as their base for discovering the aforementioned and other significant sights of Argolis. To the west, in peaceful, serene, verdant, valleys of Elia, stands Ancient Olympia, with the grandiose temple foundations, the colonnades, the stadium and the altars. The numerous interesting archaeological findings exhibited in its museum are crowned by that masterpiece of sculpture, the Hermes of Praxiteles. Entering into Lakonia, we reach its capital, Sparta. Unlike the Athenians who built temples and massive walls, the men of Sparta were considered the walls and there are few ruins from classical times, but they include the remains of the ancient acropolis, the sanctuary of Artemis and the tomb of Leonidas, whose small band of Spartan warriors held the Persians at Thermopaleae. On nearby Mount Taygetos there are numerous traditional villages, well worth a visit and the Byzantine castle-state of Mystras with its incredible churches, monasteries, palaces, and mansions. On the eastern coast of Laconia is placed the citadel town of Monemvasia. Itūs a walled city on the site of a giant stone mountain, which rises from the sea, connected by a narrow isthmus. When in Messinia, worth visiting besides the capital Kalamata with its 13th century fortress, are the little Venetian hideaway towns of Koroni and Methoni. Astonishing are also the villages in the rough land of Mani. The Maniots, are renown in Greece for their indomitable spirit and the fortified towers they call homes, underline their unique temperament.

Everywhere in the Peloponnese the people are lively, hospitable, and above all proud of their origin. Like the spirited people of the wild limestone region of Mani, they feel they uphold long established traditions and share strong feelings about their local identities. Often Peloponnesians go as far as to regard themselves as original Greeks, looking a bit down upon those Greeks born beyond the Isthmus. The reason for this is probably the fact that there hasnūt been much population mobility in this area for the past hundreds of years, juxtaposed to the reality for the rest of Greece, which underwent severe population shifts because of wars and population exchanges. Yet the people here share the innate tendency of the Greeks to enjoy life to its fullest, which is the original Greek ingredient that completes the recipe for a good life.